Journal of Perioperative Echocardiography

Register      Login

VOLUME 6 , ISSUE 2 ( July-December, 2018 ) > List of Articles


Experience with Tetralogy of Fallot Patients in a Tertiary Care Teaching Institute of North India

Rupesh Kumar, Imran Bhat, Banashree Mandal

Keywords : Echocardiography, Innominate vein, Tetralogy of fallot

Citation Information : Kumar R, Bhat I, Mandal B. Experience with Tetralogy of Fallot Patients in a Tertiary Care Teaching Institute of North India. J Perioper Echocardiogr 2018; 6 (2):51-56.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10034-1090

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; The Author(s).


Tetralogy of fallot (TOF) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease. Anatomical variations occurring in these patients often contribute to postoperative morbidity and affect the long term outcome. However, there is limited literature discussing the perioperative imaging and management of these variations. In this review, we highlight the common anatomical variations we encountered at our institute during routine perioperative echocardiography. Discussion of these with the operating team helped us in improving the surgical outcome.

PDF Share
  1. Puri GD, Raj R, Tacy TA. Transesophageal Echocardiography for Tetralogy of Fallot Repair: What a perioperative physician need to know?. J Perioper Echocardiogr 2014;(2):51-57.
  2. Quiñones M, Otto C, Stoddard M, Waggoner A, Zoghbi W. Recommendations for quantification of Doppler echocardiography: A report from the Doppler quantification task force of the nomenclature and standards committee of the American Society of Echocardiography. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 2002;15(2):167-184.
  3. Varghese R, Devendran V, Anjith P, Singhi A, Jesudian V, Sheriff E et al. Tetralogy of Fallot with subarterial ventricular septal defect: Surgical outcome in the current era. Annals of Pediatric Cardiology. 2015;8(1):4-9
  4. Flanagan M, Foran R, Van Praagh R, Jonas R, Sanders S. Tetralogy of Fallot with obstruction of the ventricular septal defect: Spectrum of echocardiographic findings. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1988;11(2):386-395.
  5. Sarris G. Tetralogy Surgery - Back To Baltimore 70 Years Later: Melbourne Heritage and Group Tribute to Juan Comas. Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery: Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual. 2017;20:84-88.
  6. Sukulal K, Bijulal S, Tharakan J. Differential diagnosis of vascular structures in relation to upper ascending aorta: The retro-aortic innominate vein. Annals of Pediatric Cardiology. 2013;6(1):97-98
  7. Kulkarni S, Jain S, Kasar P, Garekar S, Joshi S. Retroaortic left innominate vein - Incidence, association with congenital heart defects, embryology, and clinical significance. Annals of Pediatric Cardiology. 2008;1(2):139-141
  8. Chen S, Liu K, Chen H, Chiu I, Lee W, Wu M et al. Anomalous Brachiocephalic Vein: CT, Embryology, and Clinical Implications. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2005;184(4):1235-1240.
  9. Balasundaram S, Al-Halees Z, Duran CG. Persistent left superior vena cava: a simple technique for adequate drainage during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Cardiovasc Surg 1991;32: 59-61.
  10. Hastreiter A, D'Cruz I, Cantez T, Namin E, Licata R. Right-sided aorta. I. Occurrence of right aortic arch in various types of congenital heart disease. II. Right aortic arch, right descending aorta, and associated anomalies. Heart. 1966;28(6):722-739.
  11. Edwards J. Anomalies of the Derivatives of the Aortic Arch System. Medical Clinics of North America. 1948;32(4): 925-949.
  12. Aggarwal N, Sreedhar R, Gadhinglajkar S, Dharan B, Babu S, Pillai M et al. Intraoperative Diagnosis of Major Aortopulmonary Collateral Arteries by Transesophageal Echocardiography. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. 2018;32(4): 1794-1799.
  13. Zhao K, Wang H, Han H, Sun J, Yin Z, Fang M et al. Staged Procedures versus Primary Repair for Tetralogy of Fallot and Small Left Ventricle. The Heart Surgery Forum. 2012;15(1):37.
  14. Kaushal S, Radhakrishanan S, Dagar K, Iyer P, Girotra S, Shrivastava S et al. Significant intraoperative right ventricular outflow gradients after repair for tetralogy of Fallot: to revise or not to revise?. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 1999;68(5): 1705-1712.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.